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2020考研雙語閱讀:現金支付權?那是什么

2019-09-27 11:51

來源:新東方在線

作者:

  It may sound like a strange thing to enshrine in a country's constitution: the right to paycash.

  現金支付權居然能在一個國家的憲法中占有一席之地,這也許聽起來有點奇怪。

  But a debate on whether to do just that has entered Austria's election campaign, shining alight on the country's love of cold, hard currency.

  但是在奧地利的大選活動中掀起的一場關于是否把現金支付權寫入憲法的辯論,反映出奧地利民眾對冰冷的硬通貨的喜愛。

  The Austrian People's Party (?VP) recently made the suggestion as part of its campaign for aparliamentary election in late September, for which it has a commanding poll lead.

  奧地利人民黨最近提出一項關于保護現金支付的議案,將其作為9月下旬議會選舉的重要競選議題,而該議題在民調中的支持率遙遙領先。

  This led to other parties -- though sceptical of the ?VP's proposal -- vaunting theircommitment to protecting cash, with the center-left Social Democrats (SP?) demanding anend to fees levied at cashpoints.

  盡管其他黨派對奧地利人民黨的提議表示懷疑,但也彰顯了自己保護現金的決心。中左翼社會民主黨要求終結自動柜員機的手續費。

  And it is not hard to see why all major parties see protecting cash as a vote-winner.

  不難看出,所有主要黨派都將保護現金視為拉票手段。

  "In Austria, attitudes change slowly," an employee of Weinschenke, a burger restaurant indowntown Vienna, told AFP.

  維也納市中心的漢堡店Weinschenke的一名員工告訴法新社說:“在奧地利,人們的心態轉變得很慢。”

  The woman in her 30s, who only gave her name as Victoria, says she prefers to use cashbecause "you don't leave a trace".

  這位自稱名叫維多利亞的30多歲女性說,她更喜歡用現金支付,因為“不會留下痕跡”。

  Financial law expert Werner Doralt says Austrians put a high value on privacy and are wary ofanything that could be used to keep tabs on them, such as card transactions.

  金融法律專家維爾納·多拉爾特說,奧地利人很重視隱私,警惕任何可能被用來監視自己的事物,比如銀行卡交易。

  "If for example I go shopping, and it's recorded exactly how much schnapps I've bought, that'san invasion of my privacy," he says.

  他說:“比如說,如果我去購物,我買了多少東西都會被精確地記錄下來,這是侵犯我的隱私。”

  A recent survey conducted by the ING bank in 13 European countries, Australia and the US, showed Austrians were the most resistant to the idea of giving up cash payments.

  荷蘭國際集團近期在13個歐洲國家、澳大利亞和美國開展的調查顯示,奧地利人對于放棄現金支付的抵觸情緒最大。

  Just 10 percent of those surveyed in Austria said they could imagine doing without cash, compared to a European average of 22 percent.

  奧地利只有10%的受訪者表示,他們可以想象沒有現金的生活,而歐洲國家的平均水平為22%。

  According to European Central Bank data compiled in 2017, cash accounted for 67 percent ofmoney spent at points of sale in Austria, compared to just 27 percent in the Netherlands.

  根據歐洲中央銀行2017年匯編的數據,奧地利各銷售點的現金支付率為67%,相比之下荷蘭的現金支付率只占27%。

  Even in neighboring Germany, another country known for its attachment to cash, the rate isonly 55 percent.

  即使在鄰國德國,另一個以喜愛現金支付著稱的國家,現金支付率也只有55%。

  Academic and author Erich Kirchler, a specialist in economic psychology, says in Austria andGermany, citizens are aware of the dangers of an overmighty state from their World War IIexperience.

  學者、作家、經濟心理學專家埃里希·基爾希勒說,奧地利和德國的公民在二戰期間經歷過強權國家,因此他們都意識到身處強權之下的危險。

  "In that case the efficiency of state institutions becomes dangerous," Kirchler told AFP.

  基爾希勒告訴法新社說:“國家機構的高效在這種情況下變成了危險。”

  It is a theory that finds a resounding echo in the slogan printed in bold on the menu of oneVienna restaurant and bar, Caffe Latte: "Cash is lived freedom!"

  維也納的一家小餐館Caffe Latte的菜單上用粗體字印著一條標語“現金是生活的自由”,印證了這一理論。

  "When we have no more cash, we become totally exposed. A totalitarian state would thenhave unfettered power over us," the menu reads.

  菜單上寫道:“當我們不再擁有現金,我們就完全暴露了。極權國家將對我們擁有不受約束的權力。”

  Admittedly the cafe accepts cards as its owner Philipp Klos says he has to think about businesstoo.

  誠然,這家小餐館也接受銀行卡支付方式,因為老板菲利普·克羅斯說,他也得為生意著想。

  "In five years, there will be no more cash. I'm 100 percent sure," he told AFP, saying the ?VPproposal to amend the constitution is "empty talk".

  他告訴法新社說:“五年后,現金將會消失。我百分百確定。”他表示奧地利人民黨修改憲法的提議是“空談”。

  Other parties and experts have also pointed out that Austria would not have the unilateral rightto protect cash through constitutional changes because it uses the euro, which is under thepurview of the European Central Bank.

  其他黨派和專家也指出,奧地利沒有單方面的權利通過修改憲法來保護現金,因為奧地利使用的是歐元,而歐元屬于歐洲中央銀行的權力范圍。

  Even 17 years after the euro came into circulation, some Austrians are still finding notes andcoins in their previous currency, the schilling, much of it left in forgotten hiding places inhomes.

  即使在歐元流通17年后,一些奧地利人仍然可以找到舊貨幣(先令)的鈔票和硬幣,其中的很大一部分都遺忘在家中的某個角落。

  The haul from under the nation's mattresses, which until now could be exchanged at the "Euro-Bus" of the Austrian National Bank (?NB), which toured the country, was almost 19 millionschillings (1.38 million euros) this year.

  奧地利的舊貨幣至今依然可以在奧地利國家銀行的“歐元巴士”上兌換,這輛巡游全國的巴士在今年收集了近1900萬先令(約合人民幣1086萬元)。

  Unlike several other parts of the eurozone, Austrians still have an unlimited period toexchange their schillings at the ?NB.

  和歐元區的其他國家不同,奧地利人仍然可以在奧地利國家銀行無限期地兌換先令。

  Austrian banks, too, are behind some of their counterparts elsewhere when it comes to theease with which clients can access debit or credit cards.

  奧地利的銀行在客戶申辦借記卡或信用卡的便捷程度上也落后于一些歐盟國家。

  Following a recent EU directive, Austrian banks are phasing out "ATM cards" and renaming themdebit cards.

  根據歐盟最近的一項指示,奧地利的銀行將逐步淘汰提款卡,并將其更名為借記卡。

  And some banks are currently planning to equip the new debit cards with the ability to makepayments online, as is common elsewhere.

  目前奧地利的一些銀行計劃為新的借記卡配備網上支付功能,而這些功能在其他國家已經很常見了。

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